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All About Theories for Communication. Second Language Acquisition Theory The second language acquisition theory is the brainchild of renowned linguist and researcher, Stephen Krashen. The theory is important because as early as the s, it was influencing all research into how a second language is acquired.
All that is required are meaningful interactions in the language, which generally focuses more on the message that is conveyed than the grammer and rules of speech.
Competence in the language is acquired as a result of receiving comprehensible input without having undergone any formal instruction or training on the grammar or reading of the language.
Acquisition Learning Hypothesis According to Krashen, there are two second language performance systems. This happens when a child, for example, who has been exposed to a language in a natural environment, like home or school, starts reproducing correct grammatical structures unconsciously.
The child focuses more on communicating his message and the language that comes naturally to him. As he has not learnt the language, he does not focus on what he is uttering. Acquisition of a language only happens when a child can understand the message in the second language.
Here, the focus is on learning the rules of grammar and being conscious of the process through which they understand the form of the language. When comparing these two systems, Krashen points out that acquisition is more important than learning. Learning grammar does not ensure that one knows how to use it correctly.
Fluency in a language requires the person to efficiently communicate the message. Therefore, for true mastery of a language, the individual should acquire it.
Criticism This hypothesis has been criticized for failing to provide sufficient evidence and for the fact that language has been mastered in formal setups as well, where students do not interact with people and yet speak the second language in a natural setting. Monitor Hypothesis Krashen believes that every second language learner has a monitor that he uses to refine his language.
A learner will use his learned system as a monitor to polish, edit, and correct what has been learned through his acquired system. A monitor can be used more easily in written than in oral form.
This is because while talking, there is more focus on what is being said rather on how it is being said. Also, there is normally very little time to recollect what rules one has learned about the language.
Second language learners can either over-use, under-use or optimally use their monitors. Criticism The criticism here is that there is no concrete knowledge of how the monitor works and if it actually works at all. There is also a debate as to why a monitor should only exist in a learned system.
Natural Order Hypothesis This hypothesis states that individuals tend to acquire grammatical structures of a second language following a natural order that is predictable.The Acquisition-Learning distinction is the most important of all the hypotheses in Krashen's theory and the most widely known and influential among linguists and language practitioners..
According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious. second language acquisition serve as both an overview of Monitor Theory research over the last few years and as introduction to the essays that follow.
Key words: mother tongue, second language acquisition, learning, L2, theory Introduction Linguist Stephen Krashen (,), University of Southern California, USA has developed the most famous second language acquisition theory (SLA) which is also known as the Krashen’s Monitor Model.
Video created by Arizona State University for the course "Lesson Planning with the ELL in Mind". Welcome to week 1!
This module is very important as it introduces you to the basics of second language acquisition. By the end of this module, you. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition Stephen D Krashen University of Southern California.
As developed today, second language acquisition theory can be viewed as a part of "theoretical linguistics", i.e. it can be studied and developed without regard to practical application. As is the case with any scientific theory, it. Second language acquisition theory seeks to quantify how and by what processes individuals acquire a second language.
Krashen is a specialist in language development and acquisition, and his influential theory is widely accepted in the language learning community.