None more so than those of the Tudor period, whose mantra is the Protestant Reformation, the rise of Parliament, and the institutions and mentality of the common law. Yet the political agenda of the Tudor and leading European monarchies shared common elements: Commercial transactions, notably banking, were pan-European, as was the circulation of knowledge in classical languages, philosophy, theology, civil law and medicine.
This economic crisis was due to the rapidly increasing costs of government and to the overwhelming costs incurred by fighting two major wars: Since the s, several attempts by different ministers to introduce financial stability had failed.
As a result, there was "an insistent demand" for reform of these abuses of privilege, for an equitable means of taxation and for improved government processes. The population of France in the s was about 26 million, of whom 21 million lived in agriculture.
Few of these owned enough land to support a family and most were forced to take on extra work as poorly paid labourers on larger farms. There were regional differences but, by and large, French peasants were generally better off than those in countries like Russia or Poland.
Even so, hunger was a daily problem which became critical in years of poor harvest and the condition of most French peasants was poor. Similarly, the destination of tithes which the peasants were obliged to pay to their local churches was a cause of grievance as it was known that the majority of parish priests were poor and the contribution was being paid to an aristocratic, and usually absentee, abbot.
The Catholic Church maintained a rigid hierarchy as abbots and bishops were all members of the nobility and canons were all members of wealthy bourgeois families.
July Revolution: July Revolution, (), insurrection that brought Louis-Philippe to the throne of France. The revolution was precipitated by Charles X’s publication (July 26) of restrictive ordinances contrary to the spirit of the Charter of Protests and demonstrations were followed by three days of. The French Revolution & Art - Thesis: The French Revolution transformed not only the French society, but also had a huge influence and marked impact on what the purposes of the arts and their expression were now, making profound changes in what they would supposed to be used for, in the form of the Neoclassic works of art that made their appearance prior to the French Revolution. French Revolutionary wars, title given to the hostilities between France and one or more European powers between and It thus comprises the first seven years of the period of warfare that was continued through the Napoleonic Wars until Napoleon ’s abdication in , with a year of interruption under the peace of Amiens (–03).
As an institution, it was both rich and powerful. As with the nobility, it paid no taxes and merely contributed a grant to the state every five years, the amount of which was self-determined.
The upper echelons of the clergy had considerable influence over government policy. Successive French kings and their ministers had tried with limited success to suppress the power of the nobles but, in the last quarter of the 18th century, "the aristocracy were beginning once again to tighten their hold on the machinery of government".
Some American diplomats, like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jeffersonhad lived in Paris, where they consorted freely with members of the French intellectual class. Furthermore, contact between American revolutionaries and the French troops who served in North America helped spread revolutionary ideas to the French people.
The French population exceeded 28 million; of Europe's to millions, only Imperial Russia had a greater population 37 to 41 million. In short, while it may have lagged slightly behind the Low Countriesand possibly Switzerlandin per capita wealth, the sheer size of the French economy made it the premier economic power of continental Europe.
Extravagant expenditures on luxuries by Louis XVIwhose rule began inwere compounded by debts that were run up during the reign of his even-more-profligate predecessor, Louis XV who reigned from to Heavy expenditures to conduct losing the Seven Years' War —and France's backing of the Americans in their War of Independenceran the tab up an even further 1.
In theory, this would eventually lead to a war of revenge and see France regain its colonies from Britain.
In practice, it resulted in a mountain of debts. On the advice of, what many believed was, his mistress, the Marquise de Pompadourthe king supported the policy of fiscal justice designed by d'Arnouville. Still, expenditures outpaced revenues.
Worse, Louis seemed to be aware of the anti-monarchist forces that were threatening his family's rule, yet he failed to do anything to stop them.
So, inTurgot was dismissed and Malesherbes resigned. They were replaced by Jacques Neckerwho supported the American Revolution and proceeded with a policy of taking large international loans instead of raising taxes.
Jacques Necker France sent RochambeauLafayette and de Grassealong with large land and naval forces, to help the Americans. French aid proved decisive in forcing the main British army to surrender at the Battle of Yorktown in Tudor Monarchy As Renaissance Monarchy.
British historians are renowned for their Anglocentricity. None more so than those of the Tudor period, whose mantra is the Protestant Reformation, the rise of Parliament, and the institutions and mentality of the common law. 1 Textbooks on Renaissance monarchy routinely discuss Charles V, . The French revolution it transformed the relationship of people with it's gov't, ended absolute monarchy, challenged power of the church, and noble privileges OVERALL SWITCH IN SOCIETY THAT PRESENTED EQUAL RIGHTS TO THE WORLD.
The causes of the French Revolution can be attributed to several intertwining factors: Cultural: The Enlightenment philosophy desacralized the authority of the monarchy and the Catholic Church, and promoted a new society based on reason instead of traditions. Both the French Revolution and the American Revolution before it were inspired by ideas from the Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment (sometimes referred to as the Age of Enlightenment) was an intellectual movement that began in western Europe in the mids and continued until the late 18th century. Nov 09, · Watch video · Following the king’s execution, war with various European powers and intense divisions within the National Convention ushered .
- The French Revolution, which started in , caused bad times for the French people. This time and revolution devastated France in multiple ways because the monarchy and aristocrats did not care for the middle and lower classes.