Higher french essays

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Higher french essays

Overview Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary origins and historical values of the books composing the Biblewith Higher french essays state in which these exist at the present day.

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Since the sacred Scriptures have come down in a great variety of copies and ancient versions, showing more or less divergence of text, it is the province of that department of Biblical criticism which is called textualor lower, to study these documents with a view to arriving at the purest possible text of the sacred books.

The name higher criticism was first employed by the German Biblical scholar Eichhorn, in the second edition of his "Einleitung", appearing in It is not, as supposed by some, an arrogant denomination, assuming superior wisdom, but it has come into use because this sort of criticism deals with the larger aspects of Bible study; viz.

In reaching its results it sets more store on evidences internal to the books than on external traditions or attestations, and its undeniable effect is to depreciate tradition in a great measure, Higher french essays that there exists a sharply-drawn line between the exegetes of the critical and those of the traditional school.

In the process by which the critics arrive at their conclusions there is a divergence of attitude towards the supernatural element in Holy Writ. Those of the rationalistic wing ignore, and at least tacitly deny, inspiration in the theological meaning of the term, and without any doctrinal preoccupations, except some hostile to the supernaturalproceed to apply critical tests to the Scriptures, in the same manner as if they were merely human productions.

Catholic Biblical critics, while taking as postulates the plenary inspiration and the inerrancy of the sacred Writings, admit in a large measure the literary and historical conclusions reached by non-Catholic workers in this field, and maintain that these are not excluded by Catholic faith.

Its Christian exponents insist that a reverent criticism is quite within its rights in sifting the elements which enter into human aspects of the Bibleas a means of a better understanding of the written word, since its component parts were given their form by men in certain historical environments and under some of the limitations of their age and place, and since, moreover, inspiration does not dispense with ordinary human industry and methods in literary composition.

Higher Criticism may be called a sciencethough its processes and results do not admit of nicety of control and demonstration, as its principles are of the moral-psychological order.

Hence its conclusions, even in the most favourable circumstances, attain to no greater force than what arises from a convergence of probabilities, begetting a moral conviction. While some attempts have been made to elaborate a system of canons for the higher criticism, it has not, and probably never will have, a strictly defined and generally accepted code of principles and rules.

Some broad principles, however, are universally admitted by critical scholars.

Higher french essays

A fundamental one is that a literary work always betrays the imprint of the age and environment in which it was produced; another is that a plurality of authors is proved by well-marked differences of diction and style, at least when these coincide with distinctions in view-point or discrepancies in a double treatment of the same subject.

A third received canon holds to a radical dissimilarity between ancient Semitic and modern Occidental, or Aryan, methods of composition.

History before the eighteenth century The early ecclesiastical writers were unconscious of nearly all the problems to which criticism has given rise.

Their attention was concentrated on the Divine content and authority of sacred Scripture, and, looking almost exclusively at the Divine side, they deemed as of trifling account questions of authorship, date, composition, accepting unreservedly for these points such traditions as the Jewish Church had handed down, all the more readily that Christ Himself seemed to have given various of these traditions His supreme confirmation.

As for the New Testamenttradition was the determining factor here too. As exceptions we may note that Origen concluded partly from internal evidence that St. Paul could scarcely have written the Epistle to the Hebrews, and his disciple Dionysius adduced linguistic grounds for rejecting the Apocalypse as a work of St.

The Fathers saw in every sentence of the Scripture a pregnant oracle of God. Apparent contradictions and other difficulties were solved without taking possible human imperfection into view. Only in a few isolated passages does St. Jerome seem to hint at such in connexion with history.

Except in regard to the preservation of the sacred text there was nothing to elicit a critical view of the Bible in the age of the Fathers, and this applies also to the Scholastic period.

Even the Humanist movement preceding the Reformation gave no impulse to the critical spirit beyond fostering the study of the Scriptures in their original languages. It was not a Humanist, but the erratic Reformer Carlstadt, who first broke with tradition on the authorship of an inspired book by declaring that Moses could not have written the Pentateuchbecause the account of his death is in the same style as the rest of his book.

But though Carlstadt adduced a critical argument he cannot be styled a critic. HobbesPereyreSpinoza attacked the Mosaic authorship, but merely incidentally, in works in which anything like a systematic criticism found no place. A French priestRichard Simonwas the first who subjected the general questions concerning the Bible to a treatment which was at once comprehensive in scope and scientific in method.

Simon is the forerunner of modern Biblical criticism. In this he called attention to the double narratives and variation of style in the Pentateuchand thence deduced that, aside from the legal portion, which Moses himself had written down, much of the remaining matter was the work of several inspired annalistsa class to whom are due the later historical books, and who in subsequent generations added touches to the inspired histories by their predecessors.

This theory did not survive its author, but the use of internal evidence by which Simon arrived at it entitles him to be called the father of Biblical criticism. His novel view of the Mosaic books excited only condemnation, and his critical work, being an isolated effort which did not win the support of a schoolfound appreciation only in recent times.

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A continuously developing higher criticism was not to begin till the middle of the eighteenth century. But a capital distinction is to be made between criticism as applied to the Old and as applied to the New Testament. The two have followed different courses. Philosophico-religious prejudices have been kept in the background.Online custom essays, term papers, research papers, reports, reviews and homework assignments.

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