The higher headquarters may issue additional information in the second warning order for example, friendly forces, paragraph 1b of the OPORD. The leader must understand the information given in higher headquarters' second warning order. He can conduct an assessment but will not complete a detailed analysis until he receives the mission. Depending on the situation, he may choose to issue an initial warning order to his subordinates following receipt of the higher headquarters' second warning order.
It aims at improving the general manufacturing process with a view to improving productivity. It is also concerned with formulating proper work procedures so that materials will flow uninterrupted.
It lays emphasis on scientific methods of doing things rather than the use of personal intuition, experience, practice and guess work. He was described as the Father of Scientific Management. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts and started work as an apprentice in engineering.
He spent most of his time working and achieving greater efficiency at the shop-floor. His solutions to problems of efficiency were from his own practical experiences. He rose through the ranks to become a Manager in the Midvale Steel Co.
He also worked with Simonds Rolling Machine Co. It was at Bethlehem that he conducted experiment on how to improve labour productivity. He consolidated his ideas into a book — The Principles of Scientific Management .
Taylor contributed to the study of management in the following areas: According to Taylor, the success of the above principles required a complete mental revolution on the part of management and labour.
This required substituting facts or scientific method for intuition, opinion and guesswork. Taylor was concerned with finding the one best way to perform a task.
His basic philosophy of work was based on motivation. He believed that prosperity of both the employer and the worker could only be achieved through maximizing productivity. Taylor suggested that organisations would be more efficient if their knowledge, experience and practices were analysed and the best methods established by management.
Managers now apply the principles of division of labour and specialization. Managers now design an organizational structure, recruit workers and fit them into the organization with well—defined roles and responsibilities.
Managers at the shop—floor of manufacturing concerns now appreciate correct sequence of manufacturing operations through appropriate plant layout- product, process, fixed position etc. Using time study as a base, he broke each job down into its components and designed the quickest and best methods of doing each component of the job[task] the conclusion was that, he was able to allot the optimum time for performing a task given the equipment and material on hand.
He also recommended appropriate compensation for more productive workers in relation to others based on a scientifically correct rate that would benefit both the worker and the organization. The Gilbreths [husband and wife team] The Gilbreths are credited with motion study even though Taylor mentioned it in his work.
Motion study [movement on task] is the science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions. It is regarded as the cornerstone of scientific management.
In consultation with their senior colleague, Taylor, the Gilbreths were able to reduce the number of movements in laying bricks from 18 movements per brick to 5 movements per brick. In this way, individual output increased from to bricks laid per hour.
The Gilbreths were concerned with the application of measurement to management and abiding by the results. They were also concerned with finding the one best scientific way of doing things.
As employers, they did their best to practice what they preached. They laid down systematic and scientific rules and procedures for doing work and insisted on strict adherence to them.
In this way, workers had no or little discretion.Materials Management is a key activity within client and has been identified as an opportunity area to gain significant benefits. A company-wide MM program has been identified with the objective of achieving Top Quartile effectiveness and efficiency in MM.
4 Functions of Management Process: Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling 4 Basic Functions of Management is a systematic way of doing things. We refer to management as a process to emphasize that all managers, irrespective of their aptitude or skill, engage in some inter-related functions in order to achieve their desired goals.
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Contributors from 20+ nations reveal how current project management concepts and techniques can be successfully applied in different political, cultural, and geographical settings. Management includes the processes or functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Discuss the four functions of management. The four functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.