This paper traces the roots of modern American conspicuous consumption and offers an explanation as to the underlying motive driving this unique consumption behavior. Further, it analyzes marketing's response to conspicuous consumption in both affluent and post-affluent societies. The desire to conspicuously consume dates back to tribal times when men possessed women and slaves as trophies of their status Vablen
When exerting influence, individuals rely on specific influence tactics, such as bargaining and emotional appeals.
This paper examines the impact of power on the choice of influence tactics in relationships between influencers and targets. Specifically, the impact of balance of power and intensity of power on the choice of influence tactics is investigated.
Hypotheses are developed and empirically tested on a sample of sorority members. The results provide support for the assertion that power directly affects choice of influence tactics. Consumption decisions, in particular, are often made as the direct or indirect result of some sort of interpersonal influence attempt see for example Ward and Reingen The choice of a specific tactic is, to a large extent, affected b factors that are germane to the relationship and the situation in which the influence attempt is taking place.
The objective of this research is to examine some characteristics of interpersonal relationships and influence situations that affect the choice of influence tactics.
Much of the previous work on influence tactics has been of a descriptive nature, identifying typologies of influence tactics that are used in various types of relationships and settings. This paper attempts to move beyond description to prediction.
The ability to successfully predict the influence tactics likely to be used in certain relationships should be of interest to consumer behavior researchers interested in family decision-making, salesperson-customer relations, as well as other dyadic and small group relationships.
For example, Guerin found that the number of target individuals affected the choice of tactics: Understanding why the choice of influence tactics is affected by so many seemingly diverse factors would help to guide predictions about the choice of tactics.
The concept of power has provided the primary theoretical basis for much research on influence. POWER Power is central to understanding how behavior is influenced, however, there has been much debate and little agreement on a definition of this concept.
Underlying the numerous definitions of power are some basic similarities: These characteristics indicate that power is relationship or situation specific. As indicated by the underlying characteristics central to definitions of power, it is not always one-sided.
This indicates that power can be balanced or unbalanced in a relationship. Mutual interdependence, which indicates a balance of power, is commonly found in social relationships, e. Relationships where power is balanced do not neutralize the use of power, each party may continue to exert profound control over the other Emerson Relationships where power is unbalanced are also easily envisaged, for example, employer to employee, parent to child, or when the influencer is in a numerical minority.
Research on minority influence focuses on power, or a lack of power, and its relationship to influence. When acting in a minority situation, an individual lacks power, status, and competence Wood, Lundgren, Ouellette, Busceme and Blackstone Based on the preceding, it is argued that relationships and influence situations vary in the extent to which power is balanced or unbalanced.
In addition to the balance dimension of power, the intesity of power can also vary in relationships. In relationships where the fulfillment of physical and psychological needs that are very central to an individual are controlled by another, dependence will be high.
As alluded to by Dahlthe type and number of resources that are controlled by an individual provides an indication of the depth of his power and the range of his power.
In a relationship where the fulfillment of numerous needs range that are central to an individual depth are controlled by another, intensity of power would be highest.
In a relationship where few, peripheral needs are controlled by another, intensity of power would be lowest. By definition, in low power intensity relationships, individuals are not highly dependent on the relationship for their physical and psychological well-being.
Relationships between casual acquaintances, work colleagues, or between a salesperson and a customer, would be typical of relationships where the intensity of power is low. Relationships at the high end of the power intensity dimension would be very close or intimate relationships, those between close friends, husbands and wives, or children and their parents.
The more central the relationship is to an individual, the greater the ability of the other person s in the relationship to reward or punish the individual in a manner that will have either a very beneficial or a very detrimental effect on the individual.
Power is clearly a relationship specific concept that varies along two key dimensions: Similarly, Palan and Wilkes found that parents used five different strategies solely based on their role as legitimate authorities and that adolescents generally recognized and respected this authority.
These results can be explained by the fact that there typically are imbalances in power between children and their parents, which leads to the use of specific influence strategies. An individual attempting to influence a group of people is in a numerical minority which equates to a weaker power position.
In terms of the intensity of power in a relationship, Guerin found that individuals use different tactics on friends as opposed to strangers.
Before specifically examining the impact of power on the choice of influence tactics, influence tactics need to be further introduced. Influence tactics or specific communication tactics have been examined by researchers in a number of domains e. Numerous typologies of influence tactics have been inductively derived.
For example, Yukl and Falbe concentratedon identifying the tactics commonly used by managers on their subordinates and peers; Frazier and Sheth focused on identifying influence tactics used by channel members on other channel members; Kirchler identified tactics used by husbands and wives on each other; and Palan and Wilkes identified tactics used by adolescents on their parents.an examination of obama’s use of hidden hypnosis techniques in his speeches exposing obama’s deception may be the only way to protect democracy 1 an examination of obama’s.
toward an understanding of the choice of influence tactics: the impact of power Lynnea Mallalieu, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Corinne Faure, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Results indicated the importance of both influence tactics and individual differences on assessments of promotability. The study investigates the importance of subordinate influence tactics and individual differences on supervisors’ perceptions of promotability.
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The new findings were consistent with alternative climatic and solar activity records showing that a quasi-millennial oscillation occurred throughout the entire Holocene for the last 10, years [16, 17]. The severe discrepancy between observations and modeled predictions found during the The best example of real marketing is the use of the insight framework of their brand around the audience, giving them some connection and contact.