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The question of the restoration of the seceded states to the Union became an issue long before the surrender at Appomattox, Virginia, on 9 April According to the Crittenden-Johnson Resolutions of Julythe object of the war was to restore the Union with "all the dignity, equality, and rights of the several States unimpaired.
Congress refused to reaffirm its policy, President Abraham Lincoln appointed military governors for partially reconquered states, and moderate and radical Republicans debated the exact status of insurgent communities. Presidential Reconstruction The president viewed the process of wartime reconstruction as a weapon to detach Southerners from their allegiance to the Confederacy and thus shorten the war.
Consequently, on 8 Decemberhe issued a proclamation of amnesty that promised full pardon to all disloyal citizens except a few leaders of the rebellion, former officers of the United Statesand perpetrators of unlawful acts against prisoners of war.
Whenever 10 percent of the voters of had taken the oath of allegiance, they were authorized to inaugurate new governments. All Lincoln required was their submission to the Union and their acceptance of the Emancipation Proclamation. The president's plan encountered resistance in Congress.
Perturbed by his failure to leave Reconstruction to the lawmakers and anxious to protect Republican interests in the SouthCongress, on 2 Julypassed the Wade- Davis Bill, a more stringent measure than Lincoln's "ten-percent plan.
Only those who were able to take an "iron-clad oath" of past loyalty were to be enfranchised, and slavery was to be abolished. When Lincoln pocket vetoed the measure, its authors bitterly attacked him in the Wade-Davis Manifesto.
After the president's reelection, efforts to revive the Wade-Davis Bill in modified form failed. Congress refused to recognize the "free-state" governments established in accordance with Lincoln's plan in Louisiana and Arkansas, and so Lincoln's assassination of 14 April left the future of Reconstruction in doubt.
What Lincoln would have done if he had lived is difficult to establish. It is known that as soon as General Ulysses S. Grant had forced General Robert E. Lee to surrender, the president withdrew his invitation to members of the Confederate legislature to Virginia to reassemble: It is also clear that he was not averse to the enfranchisement of qualified blacks.
He wrote to this effect to the governor of Louisiana and touched on the subject in his last public address on 11 April But, as he said in his second inaugural address, pleading for "malice toward none" and "charity for all," he was anxious for a speedy reconciliation between the sections.
With the end of the war, the problem of Reconstruction—both the restoration of the states and the integration of the freedmen—became more acute. If the seceded states were to be restored without any conditions, local whites would soon reestablish rule by the Democratic Party.
Gain instruction in expository writing based on analysis of selected masterpieces of ancient and modern literature. You will come to understand the readings through class discussion and writing and revising papers that analyze the readings in academic argument form. SkyView offers PK-8 students daily Spanish language instruction, while high school students have the option of taking American Sign Language, French, Latin or Spanish. Our goal is for students to acquire proficiency in interpersonal communication, interpretive communication, and presentational communication through the four integrative skills. Roorda brings the insights of narrative theory to bear upon the genre of nature writing, to explore the social or ethical purposes of solitude in stories of retreat in nature. This book complicates social views of literacy with depictions of a solitude held in dynamic relation to a not-only-human community.
They would seek to reverse the verdict of the sword and, by combining with their Northern associates, challenge Republican supremacy.
Moreover, before long, because of the end of slavery and the lapse of the Three-Fifths Compromise, the South would obtain a larger influence in the councils of the nation than before the war.
The easiest way of solving this problem would have been to extend the suffrage to the freedmen. But in spite of an increasing radical commitment to votes for blacks, the majority of the party hesitated. Popular prejudice, not all of it in the South, was too strong, and many doubted the feasibility of enfranchising newly liberated slaves.
Nevertheless, the integration of the blacks into American life now became one of the principal issues of Reconstruction. Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnsonwas wholly out of sympathy with black suffrage, especially if conferred by the federal government.
A Southerner and former slave-holder, Johnson held deep prejudices against blacks, who, he believed, should occupy an inferior place in society. In addition, as a firm adherent of states' rights, he was convinced that voting rights were the exclusive concern of the states, not the federal government.
He was willing to have the states concede the vote to very few educated or propertied African Americansbut only to stop radical agitation. Based on his Jacksonian conviction of an indestructible Union of indestructible states, his Reconstruction policies in time of peace resembled those of his predecessor in time of war.
But they were no longer appropriate. Johnson's plan, published on 29 Maycalled for the speedy restoration of Southern governments based on the white electorate of Appointing provisional governors—executives who were to call constitutional conventions—first for North Carolina and then for the other states, Johnson expected the restored states to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery, nullify the secession ordinances, and repudiate the Confederate debt, although he did not even insist on these conditions.The methods of instruction include discussion, on-demand in-class essays, multiple drafts of written work, lectures, student presentations, research, films, independent reading, oral .
The methods of instruction include discussion, on-demand in-class essays, multiple drafts of written work, lectures, student presentations, research, films, independent reading, oral reading, and practice AP exams.
This self-directed lesson will review the check writing process while building mental-math skills and providing insight into careers and real-life contexts.
using American English conventions. An increasing proportion of children in American schools, particularly in certain school systems, are learning disabled, with most of the children identified as such because of difficulties in learning to read.
Interventions geared at improving beginning reading instruction, rehabilitating substandard schools, and ensuring adequate teacher.
ENG LITERATURE AND THE ARTS OF CITIZENSHIP. (3) A survey and investigation of contemporary literature of modern American citizenship, with an emphasis on questions of race, re ligion, gender, sexuality, and socioeconomic class. Lecture. Offers credit for the UK Core requirements in either U.S.
Citizenship or I ntellectual . Analysis of literary devices and sequential development of ability to analyze and appreciate good literature. Emphasizes development of critical and analytic skills in diverse school environments.
CUR Seminar in Curriculum Development in Reading and the Language Arts (3).